Causes

Any noxious stimuli; most common:

  • bladder distention (>90%)
  • bowel-fecal impaction or excess gas
  • skin pressure sores
  • ingrown toenail
  • sunburn
  • tight clothing
  • fractures
  • surgical procedures
  • sexual intercourse
  • pregnancy and labour
  • menstrual cramps
  • hives
  • ejaculation
  • temperature changes
  • abrasion injuries